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Physicist Albert Einstein

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Physicist Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 - April 18, 1955), was born in the German Württemberg Ulm City, graduated from the University of Zurich, Jewish physicist. In 1905, received a doctorate degree from the University of Zurich, Einstein proposed photon hypothesis, successfully explained the photoelectric effect, so won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1905 founded the special theory of relativity, in 1916 founded the general theory of relativity. Einstein laid the theoretical foundation for nuclear energy development, creating a new era of modern science and technology, is recognized as Galileo, Newton since the greatest physicist. December 26, 1999, Einstein was the United States, "Time magazine" named "century great man".

In April 1914, Einstein accepted the invitation of the German scientific community, moved to Berlin. In August, the outbreak of the first world war. Although he is living in the birthplace of war. Living in the war advocates surrounded, but firmly demonstrated his own anti-war attitude. In September, Einstein was involved in launching the anti-war group "New Motherland League", and Einstein remained firmly involved in the secret activities of the organization when the organization was declared illegal and members were arrested. In October, the German scientific and cultural circles, under the manipulation and incitement of the militarists, issued the Declaration of the Civilized World, defended the war of aggression against Germany, preached Germany above all else, and the whole world should accept the "German spirit". In the Declaration, there were ninety-three people who were prestigious scientists, artists and pastors in Germany. Even Nancy, Roentgen, Ostwald, Planck and so on in the above sign. When asked for Einstein's signature, he categorically refused, and at the same time he decided to sign his name in the anti-war "European book".

The special theory of relativity is the new space-time theory proposed by Albert Einstein in 1905, entitled "Electromodynamics of the subject", which is different from Newton's space-time concept. "Narrow" means that it applies only to the inertial reference system. Special relativity theory is applied to the inertial reference system under the time and space theory. It argues that space and time are not independent of each other, but should be described by a uniform four-dimensional space-time. The starting point of this theory is two basic assumptions: the principle of narrow relativity and the principle of constant speed of light. The special relativity predicts some of the new effects (relativistic effects) that Newton's classical physics do not have, such as time swell, length contraction, lateral Doppler effect, quality-velocity relationship, and qualitative relationship. Special relativity has become one of the foundations of modern physics: all micro-physics theories (such as elementary particle theory) and macroscopic gravitational theory (such as general relativity) satisfy the requirements of special relativity. These relativistic kinetic theories have been confirmed by many high-precision experiments.

The Theory of Gravitational Interaction between General Relativity Descriptors. By Einstein in 1915 to complete, officially published in 1916. In general relativity, gravitational attraction is described as the curvature of time and space, and this space-time curvature and space-time material and radiation energy directly linked, the contact is Einstein's gravitational field equation. The general theory of relativity, as it is sternly confirmed and its theoretical grace, is quickly recognized and appreciated by people. However, since Newton's gravitational theory is sufficiently accurate for most gravitational phenomena, the general theory of relativity provides only a minimal correction, and people do not need it practically. Therefore, after half a century of general relativity, it has not been adequately Attention, has not been rapid development. By the 1960s, the situation changed and found that strong gravitational objects (neutron stars) and 3K cosmic background radiation, so that the study of general relativity flourished. General relativity is important for studying the structure and evolution of celestial bodies and the structure and evolution of the universe. Neutron star formation and structure, black hole physics and black hole detection, gravitational radiation theory and gravitational wave detection, large explosion cosmology, quantum gravity and large-scale space-time topology and other issues are in-depth, general theory of relativity to become an important theoretical basis for physical research The

In 1921, Einstein won the Nobel Prize in Physics for photoelectric effects research. The photoelectric effect was discovered by the German physicist Hertz in 1887, and the correct theoretical explanation was made by Einstein. Einstein argues that the energy of light is not evenly distributed, but is loaded on discrete light quantum, and that the energy of the photon is related to the frequency of the light it forms. This groundbreaking theory not only explains the photoelectric effect, but also promotes the birth of quantum mechanics.

In 1933 the German Nazi government examined his apartment in Berlin, burned its books, confiscated its property, and rewarded 100,000 marks to buy his head. Einstein was a visiting professor at Princeton University, who joined the American nationality after learning of the news. On August 2, 1939, under the impetus of Sirad, he wrote to President Roosevelt that the United States should seize the study of atomic energy and prevent Germany from preoccupying with the atomic bomb. In 1944 Einstein in order to support the anti-fascist war, to 6 million US dollars auction 1905 special relativity thesis manuscript. In March 1945, with Leo Xilade to discuss the danger of atomic armaments, wrote to introduce Sirad to see Roosevelt, unsuccessful. In September, Einstein published a series of remarks about the Atomic War and the World Government, recommending the reorganization of the United Nations as a world government.

In February 1955, with Russell to discuss the issue of peace declaration. In March, write "readme fragments", recall the youth of the study and scientific exploration of the road. April 3, with Cohen talk about the history of science and other issues. April 5, refuted the American fascist to him with the "subversive" hat. April 11, signed in the declaration. On April 13, severe abdominal pain occurred during the drafting of a telegraph, and later diagnosed as arterial bleeding. April 15 into Princeton Hospital. On April 18, Einstein was diagnosed with aortic aneurysms, 18 at midnight in the sleep feel breathing difficulties, aortic aneurysm rupture led to cerebral hemorrhage rupture, and died in Princeton. A doctor named Thomas Harvey took the Einstein's brain by dissecting the remains of Einstein's body. The pathologist hopes that the future neuroscience will be able to study Einstein's brain to find Einstein's clever reasons. In order to comply with Einstein's will, he did not hold any funeral after death, nor to build a grave, without a monument, the body will be cremated according to the will, ashes are kept in the secret place, the purpose is not to bury him Place to be a holy place.

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