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Global Positioning System

Global Positioning System (Picture 1)


GPS is the abbreviation of English Global Positioning System. GPS began in 1958 as a project of the US military and was put into use in 1964. In the 1970s, the US Army, Navy, and Air Force jointly developed a new generation of satellite positioning system GPS. The main purpose is to provide real-time, all-weather and global navigation services for the three major areas of land, sea and air, and for military purposes such as intelligence gathering, nuclear explosion monitoring and emergency communications. After more than 20 years of research and experiment, it cost 30 billion US dollars until 1994. The 24 GPS satellite constellations with a global coverage rate of 98% have been completed.

Due to the all-weather, high-precision and automatic measurement characteristics of GPS technology, as an advanced measurement method and new productivity, it has been integrated into various application fields of national economic construction, national defense construction and social development. With the end of the Cold War and the booming global economy, the US government announced that it will cancel the SA policy from 2000 to 2006, while ensuring that US national security is not threatened. GPS civilian signal accuracy is improved globally, using C. The accuracy of the /A code for single point positioning is increased from 100 meters to 10 meters, which will further promote the application of GPS technology, improve productivity, operational efficiency, scientific level and people's quality of life, and stimulate the growth of the GPS market. According to relevant experts, in the United States, the car GPS navigation system alone will reach $3 billion in the market after 2000.

3D navigation is the primary function of GPS. Aircraft, ships, ground vehicles and pedestrians can use GPS navigators for navigation. Car navigation system is a new technology developed on the basis of global positioning system GPS. The car navigation system consists of GPS navigation, autonomous navigation, microprocessor, vehicle speed sensor, gyro sensor, CD-ROM drive, and LCD display. The GPS navigation system is combined with electronic maps, radio communication networks, and computer vehicle management information systems to implement many functions such as vehicle tracking and traffic management. Similar to the car GPS terminal, there are positioning mobile phones, personal locators and the like. GPS satellite positioning has to pay a different monthly/year service fee due to the third-party positioning service.

There are currently four satellite navigation systems worldwide. 1. US Global Positioning System. It consists of 24 satellites, distributed in 6 orbital planes with 60 degrees apart, with an accuracy of about 10 meters. It is used by both military and civilians. It is testing the second generation satellite system; 2. The Russian "Glonass" system. It consists of 24 satellites with an accuracy of about 10 meters. It is used by both military and civilian. It is designed to expand to the world at the end of 2009. 3. The European "Galileo" system. It consists of 30 satellites with a positioning error of no more than 1 meter, mainly for civilian use. The first experimental satellite was successfully launched in 2005. It is expected to open positioning services before 2008; 4, China's "Beidou" system. It consists of five geostationary orbit satellites and 30 non-geostationary orbit satellites. The accuracy of “Beidou No.1” is within 10 meters, while “Beidou No.2” can be accurate to “cm”. It plans to cover China and surrounding areas around 2008 and then gradually expand into a global satellite navigation system.

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