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Artificial satellite

Artificial satellite (Picture 1)


Artificial satellites, unattenders running around the Earth running on space tracks. The artificial satellite basically winds the earth in accordance with the astronautical law, but the actual movement is very complicated due to the influence of non-spherical Earth gravitational field, atmospheric resistance, solar gravity, moon gravity and light pressure on different tracks. Artificial satellites are the most emission, the most used spacecraft, the fastest development. The number of emitted satellites is about 90% of the total number of aerospacers. According to the purpose, the artificial satellite can be divided into communication satellite, meteorological satellite, reconnaissance satellite, navigation satellite, measuring satellite, interception satellite, etc. These have a wide variety of artificial satellites for humans contribute to humans.

On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, the United States, France, Japan, and China also launched the artificial satellite. The artificial satellite can be divided into three categories: scientific satellite, technical test satellite and application satellite. Science satellites are satellites for scientific detection and research, mainly including space physics detection satellites and astronomical satellites, used to study a planet atmospheric, radiation belt, magnetic layer, cosmine, solar radiation, etc., and observe other stars, the world Most of the artificial satellites are artificial Earth satellites, and there are people who make Mars satellite.

The movement track of the artificial satellite depends on the task requirements of the satellite, distinguishing between low orbit, medium and high orbit, earth still track, solar synchronous orbit, large elliptical orbit and pole track. Artificial satellite is fast, low orbit and medium tracks, high orbit satellites can fly a few turns around the earth to more than ten laps, unordered, small and geographical conditions, vision. It can quickly exchange information with the ground, including the forwarding of ground information, and obtain a large number of remote sensing information of the earth, the area of ​​the Earth's resource satellite image can reach tens of thousands of square kilometers.

At the satellite orbit height reaches 35786 kilometers, while the Earth's equator is flying in the same direction, the satellite split cycle is exactly the same as the Earth's own cycle, the relative position remains unchanged, this satellite seems to be stationary on the earth. Hanging in high altitude, called earth still track satellites, referred to as still satellites, this satellite can realize uninterrupted information exchange between satellites and ground stations, and greatly simplify the equipment of the ground station. Most of the television broadcast and forwarding communications through satellite is achieved by still communication satellite.

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