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Nogium

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The sulcus hammerhead shark is a surface fish that inhabits from the coast to the ocean. It is also often found in the waters of the continental shed or island shed, and occasionally in the inner bay or lagoon area. Has a migratory habit. Carnivorous, feeding on other benthic creatures such as soft and bony fishes, cephalopods and crustaceans. It is aggressive and potentially dangerous to humans. Viviparous, one child can give birth to 6-42 juvenile sharks. Distributed in the tropical waters of the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. In China, it is distributed in the northern waters of Taiwan and the South China Sea.

Hammerhead sharks have good meat quality. The fish meat is braised or processed into various meat products; fins can be used as shark fins; thick skin can be processed into leather; liver can be processed into vitamins and oil; the remainder can be made into fish meal. Due to overfishing, the number of hammerhead sharks has fallen by 50% since the 1990s. It is also threatened in the southwestern Indian Ocean, with a large number of longline fishing vessels illegally fishing along the coast. From 1978 to 2003, the rate of catching hammerhead sharks in the Indian Ocean has dropped by 73%. The grooveless hammerhead shark is on the brink of extinction on the west coast of Africa, and its population is estimated to have fallen by 80% in the 25 years from 1978 to 2003.

In 2010, the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT) banned the retention, transshipment, landing, and sale of grooveless hammerhead sharks and other hammerhead sharks in ICCAT fisheries operating in the convention area. There are also exceptions for local consumption in developing countries, as long as they limit catches, meet catch data reporting requirements, and ensure that fins are not traded internationally. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) designated the hammerhead shark as the "main shark species" in 2010, but it has not yet adopted the fishing restrictions for the hammerhead shark. In order to recover, it is recommended that all "hammerhead sharks" fishing should be banned at least when the global grooved hammerhead shark population is classified as "critically endangered" or "endangered".

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