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Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy

Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy (Picture 1)

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The Leaning Tower of Pisa was built in August 1173. It is a free-standing bell tower of the Cathedral of Pisa in Italy. It is located on the Piazza dei Miracoli in the north of Pisa in the province of Tuscany, Italy. A group of religious buildings are scattered on the large lawn of Piazza dei Miracoli. They are the cathedral (built from 1063 to the 13th century), the baptistery (built from 1153 to the 14th century), the bell tower (that is, the Leaning Tower of Pisa) and the cemetery ( Built in 1174), their outer walls are made of milky white marble, each of which is relatively independent but forms a unified Romanesque architectural style. The Leaning Tower of Pisa is located behind the Pisa Cathedral. The Leaning Tower of Pisa is 58.36 meters high from the foundation to the top of the tower and 55 meters from the ground to the top of the tower. The width of the bell tower wall on the ground is 4.09 meters, and the width of the tower top is 2.48 meters. The total weight is about 14,453 tons. The center of gravity is above the foundation. 22.6 meters away. The circular foundation area is 285 square meters, and the average pressure on the ground is 497 kPa. The inclination angle is 3.99 degrees, 2.5 meters away from the outer edge of the foundation, and the top layer protrudes 4.5 meters. Tilt was first discovered in 1178.

Pisa is a famous city in central Italy, located in the Arno River Delta. Pisa is world-famous because of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Pisa was built in the 1st century BC and was originally an important city for the Etruscans. It was occupied by the Romans in the 2nd century BC. In the Middle Ages, Pisa became an important maritime republic in central Italy. After being defeated by Florence in 1406, it merged into the city-state. In 1806, it became the capital of the province of Pisa in the Kingdom of Italy. Pisa Cathedral Square is located on the Piazza dei Miracoli in the north of Pisa. It is a typical representative of Italian Romanesque church architecture. There are a group of religious buildings scattered on the large lawn of the square. They are the Cathedral of Santa Maria, the Baptistery, the bell tower (that is, the Leaning Tower of Pisa) and the cemetery. Their outer walls are made of milky white marble, and they are relatively independent. But it also formed a unified Romanesque architectural style.

The slope of the Leaning Tower of Pisa is due to the peculiarities of the soil under its foundation. Under the Leaning Tower of Pisa, there are several layers of soil of different materials. The sediments of various soft silt and very soft clay are formed alternately, and the groundwater layer is about one meter deep. The latest excavations show that the bell tower was built on the edge of the ancient coast, so the soil has been sanded and sunk when it was built. However, a project in 1838 caused the Leaning Tower of Pisa to suddenly accelerate, and people had to take emergency maintenance measures. At that time, the architect carried out excavations around the originally sealed leaning tower foundation to explore the shape of the foundation and reveal whether the column base and foundation steps are the same as imagined. This behavior caused the leaning tower to lose its original balance and the foundation began to crack. The survey results after this project show that the tilt has increased by 20 centimeters, while the total tilt in the previous 267 years was only 5 centimeters. After the completion of the project in 1838, the accelerated tilt of the Leaning Tower of Pisa continued for a few more years, and then stabilized again, reducing to about 0.1 cm per year, and the tower deviated from its "natural posture" by more than 5 meters.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa is undoubtedly an important building in the history of architecture. Before the serious tilt, its bold circular architectural design has shown its originality to the world. Although it is not uncommon in earlier Italian clock towers to use circular foundation designs, similar examples can be found in Ravenna, Tuscany and Umbria, but the Pisa clock tower is considered to be independent of these The prototype, to a greater extent, is based on the architectural experience of predecessors, independently designed and developed the circular building, forming a unique pizza style. For example, the circular design of the bell tower is considered to correspond to the reflection of the cathedral building next to it, so it deliberately imitates the curved design of the semicircular apse of the church. More importantly, the bell tower is consistent with the emphasis on the circular structure on the square, especially after the magnificent and circular baptistery was laid, the entire square is more like a modern version of the Jerusalem Resurrection Church deliberately designed .

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