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Gaseous giant planet Jupiter

Gaseous giant planet Jupiter (Picture 1)

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Jupiter is the largest and fastest spinning planet among the eight planets in the solar system, the fifth planet from the inside out. Its mass is one-thousandth of the sun, 2.5 times the sum of the mass of the other seven planets in the solar system. Jupiter and Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are all gas planets, so the four are collectively called wood-like planets (Jupiter and Saturn are collectively called gaseous giant planets). Jupiter is a gaseous giant planet, accounting for 70% of all solar system planets, mainly composed of hydrogen, followed by strontium, which accounts for 25% of the total mass, and the core contains other heavier elements. What humans see is usually the top of the cloud in the atmosphere, and the pressure is slightly higher than 1 atmosphere.

Jupiter presents a spheroid due to its rapid rotation (slightly but clearly visible bulges near the equator). The outer atmosphere is clearly divided into multiple zones according to the latitude, and the margins of each zone are prone to turbulence and storms. The most notable example is the great red spot. Surrounding the planet is a weak planetary ring system and a powerful magnetic layer. Jupiter has at least 79 satellites. In February 2018, NASA published an image of a group of Jupiter's South Pole captured by the Juno satellite. The striking blue vortex was distorted by gorgeous patterns, creating an amazing spectacle. .

Jupiter is a huge liquid hydrogen star. As the depth increases, liquid hydrogen forms at a depth of at least 5,000 kilometers from the surface in a high pressure and high temperature environment. It is speculated that the center of Jupiter is a nuclear region composed of substances such as silicate and iron, and the material composition and density are continuously transitioned. Jupiter's upper atmosphere consists of approximately 88-92% hydrogen by volume or gas molecules and approximately 8-12% bismuth. Since the mass of helium atoms is four times that of hydrogen atoms, the proportion of Jupiter's mass composition will change: the hydrogen and helium in the atmosphere account for 75% and 24% of the total mass, respectively, and the remaining 1% are other elements, including Trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon compounds. In addition, Jupiter also contains trace amounts of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, helium, oxygen, phosphine, sulfur and other substances. The outermost layer of the atmosphere has crystals of frozen ammonia. Jupiter also found traces of benzene and hydrocarbons through infrared and ultraviolet measurements.

The mass of Jupiter is 2.5 times the sum of the masses of other planets in the solar system. Because its mass is so great, the centroid of the solar system falls outside the surface of the sun, 10.86 sun radius from the center of the sun. Although Jupiter is 11 times larger than Earth, it is very large, but its density is very low, so Jupiter is 1321 times the size of the Earth, but the mass is only 318 times that of the Earth. The radius of Jupiter is one tenth of the radius of the sun, and the mass is only one thousandth of the mass of the sun, so the density of the two is similar. "Jupiter Mass" (MJ or MJup) is often used as a mass unit to describe other celestial bodies (especially exoplanets and brown dwarfs). Thus, for example, the mass of the exoplanet HD 209458 b is 0.69 MJup, and the mass of the Andromeda κb is 12.8 MJup.

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